At the time of Joomla! custom component development, we need to get a component params for use in different places like in component itself, modules, plugins.

Access component params from inside own component

To access component params in component itself, I use JFactory::getApplication() like below:

$app = JFactory::getApplication();
$params = $app->getParams();
$param = $params->get('show_create_date');

To access component params from another component:

$content_params = JComponentHelper::getParams( 'com_content' );
$show_date = $content_params->get( 'show_create_date' );

Or even shortcut:

$show_date = JComponentHelper::getParams('com_content')->get('show_create_date');

Get Module Parameter from template's index.php file:

$module = JModuleHelper::getModule('mod_headlineticker');
$headLineParams = new JRegistry($module->params);
$tickercount = (int) $headLineParams['count'];

Get plugin's parameter anywhere inside Joomla

To access a plugin's parameter (here, it is "relatedarticles" which is a "content" plugin) anywhere inside Joomla 3, load the particular plugin's parameters in a variable named "$plugin" using JPluginHelper::getPlugin function as an array. Later, this array-type variable is boxed in JRegistry class and use "get" function to access each and every parameter of jRegistry class.

// Get plugin 'relatedarticles' of type 'content'
$plugin = JPluginHelper::getPlugin('content', 'relatedarticles');
// Check if plugin is enabled
if ($plugin)
{
    // Get plugin params
    $pluginParams = new JRegistry($plugin->params);
    $catids = $pluginParams->get('catids');
}

To access Current Menu parameters:

$app = JFactory::getApplication();
// Get active menu
$currentMenuItem = $app->getMenu()->getActive();
// Get params for active menu
$params = $currentMenuItem->params;
// Access param you want
$yourParameter = $params->get('yourParameter');

To access Menu parameters from a known Itemid:

$app = JFactory::getApplication();
// Get Itemid from URL
$input  = JFactory::getApplication()->input;
$itemId = $input->get->get('Itemid', '0', 'INT');
// Get menu from Itemid
$menuItem = $app->getMenu()->getItem($itemId);
// Get params for menuItem
$params = $menuItem->params;
// Access param you want
$yourParameter = $params->get('yourParameter');

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